The Mediterranean Sea is inhabited by a rich and diverse biota and is currently impacted by many pressures, mainly driven by human activities such as climate change and bioinvasions. It is considered, in fact, one of the regions most susceptible to global climate change.

This book chapter analyses, on the basis of a review of the available literature, 1) the origin of the Mediterranean Sea as well as the origin of its rich and diverse biota; 2) the main threats to Mediterranean biodiversity; 3) the phenomenon of biological invasions; and provides summaries for 10 invasive species known worldwide for their environmental and economic impact.

The authors highlight the condition of the Mediterranean Sea as a true hotspot of marine bioinvasions, highly associated to the Suez Canal and the sheer magnitude of shipping traffic. It is stated that the complexity of interactions between native and invasive species and the associated resulting impacts make environmental management of such an issue particularly difficult. In this general context, the authors call for increased collaborations between researchers, resource management agencies and policy makers, in order to bolster the effectiveness on invasive species management procedures.

Mannino AM, Balistreri P, Deidun A (2017) The Marine Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea in a Changing Climate: The Impact of Biological Invasions, Mediterranean Identities – Environment, Society, Culture, Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69214.